mammoth adj : so exceedingly large or extensive as to suggest a giant or mammoth; "a gigantic redwood"; "gigantic disappointment"; "a mammoth ship"; "a mammoth multinational corporation" [syn: gigantic] n : any of numerous extinct elephants widely distributed in the Pleistocene; extremely large with hairy coats and long upcurved tusks
EtymologyFrom obsolete Russian мамант (modern мамонт), probably from Old Vogul *mēmoŋt ‘earth-horn’ (compare Mansi mā ‘earth’, ou̯tə ‘horn’).
- Bosnian: mamut
- Chinese: 猛獁, 猛犸 (měngmà)
- Czech: mamut
- Dutch: mammoet
- Finnish: mammutti
- French: mammouth
- German: Mammut
- Interlingua: mammut
- Italian: mammut
- Japanese: マンモス (manmosu)
- Macedonian: мамут
- Norwegian: mammut
- Russian: мамонт (mámont)
- Cyrillic: мамут
- Roman: mamut
- Cyrillic: мамут
- Slovenian: mamut
- Spanish: mamut
- Swedish: mammut
- Ukrainian: мамонт
- Very large.
A mammoth is any species of the extinct genus Mammuthus. These proboscideans are members of the elephant family and close relatives of modern elephants. They were often equipped with long curved tusks and, in northern species, a covering of long hair. They lived from the Pliocene epoch from 4.8 million years ago to around 4,500 years ago. The word mammoth comes from the Russian мамонт mamont, probably in turn from the Vogul (Mansi) language.
ExtinctionThe woolly mammoth was the last species of the genus. Most populations of the woolly mammoth in North America and Eurasia died out at the end of the last Ice Age. Until recently it was generally assumed, that the last woolly mammoths vanished from Europe and Southern Siberia about 10,000 BC, but new findings show, that some were still present here about 8,000 BC. Only slightly later the woolly mammoths also disappeared from continental Northern Siberia. Woolly mammoths as well as Columbian mammoths disappeared from the North American continent at the end of the ice age. A small population survived on St. Paul Island, Alaska, up until 6000 BC,
A definitive explanation for their mass extinction is yet to be agreed upon. About 12,000 years ago, warmer, wetter weather was beginning to take hold. Rising sea levels swamped the coastal regions. Forests replaced open woodlands and grasslands across the continent.The Ice Age was ebbing. As their habitats disappeared, so did the bison and the mammoth.
Whether the general mammoth population died out for climatic reasons or due to overhunting by humans is controversial. Another theory suggests that mammoths may have fallen victim to an infectious disease. A combination of climate change and hunting by humans is the most likely explanation for their extinction.
New data derived from studies done on living elephants (see Levy 2006) suggests that though human hunting may not have been the primary cause for the mammoth's final extinction, human hunting was likely a strong contributing factor. Homo erectus is known to have consumed mammoth meat as early as 1.8 million years ago (Levy 2006: 295).
However, the American Institute of Biological Sciences also notes that bones of dead elephants, left on the ground and subsequently trampled by other elephants, tend to bear marks resembling butchery marks, which have previously been misinterpreted as such by archaeologists.
The survival of the dwarf mammoths on Russia's Wrangel Island was due to the fact that the island was very remote, and uninhabited in the early Holocene period. The actual island was not discovered by modern civilization until the 1820s by American whalers. A similar dwarfing occurred with the Pygmy Mammoth on the outer Channel Islands of California, but at an earlier period. Those animals were very likely killed by early Paleo-Native Americans, and habitat loss caused by a rising sea level that split the Santa Rosae into the outer Channel Islands.
Thomas Jefferson, well-versed in the natural sciences, nevertheless suggested to Lewis and Clark that they might find mammoth fossils during their explorations of the American West.
SizeIt is a common misconception that mammoths were much larger than modern elephants, an error that has led to "mammoth" being used as an adjective meaning "very big". Certainly, the largest known species, the Imperial Mammoth of California, reached heights of at least 5 metres (16 feet) at the shoulder. Mammoths would probably normally weigh in the region of 6 to 8 tonnes, but exceptionally large males may have exceeded 12 tonnes. A 3.3 m. (11 ft.) long mammoth tusk was discovered north of Lincoln, Illinois in 2005. However, most species of mammoth were only about as large as a modern Asian Elephant. Fossils of species of dwarf mammoth have been found on the Californian Channel Islands (Mammuthus exilis) and the Mediterranean island of Sardinia (Mammuthus lamarmorae). There was also a race of dwarf woolly mammoths on Wrangel Island, north of Siberia, within the Arctic Circle.
Based on studies of their close relatives, the modern elephants, mammoths probably had a gestation period of 22 months, resulting in a single calf being born. Their social structure was probably the same as that of African and Asian elephants, with females living in herds headed by a matriarch, whilst bulls lived solitary lives or formed loose groups after sexual maturity.
Well-preserved specimensIn May of 2007, the carcass of a six-month-old female mammoth calf was discovered encased in a layer of permafrost near the Yuribei River in Russia where it had been buried for 37,000 years. Alexei Tikhonov, the Russian Academy of Science's Zoological Institute's deputy director has dismissed the prospect of cloning the animal, as the whole cells required for cloning would have burst under the freezing conditions. DNA is expected to be well-preserved enough to be useful for research on mammoth phylogeny and perhaps physiology however.
- (2006): A nuclear DNA phylogeny of the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (2) 620–627. (HTML abstract). Supplemental data available to subscribers.
- (2006): Clashing with Titans. BioScience 56(4): 292-298. DOI:10.1641/0006-3568(2006)56[292:CWT]2.0.CO;2 PDF fulltext
- (1994): Mammoths. MacMillan, London. ISBN 0-02-572985-3
- (2005): Twilight of the mammoths: Ice Age extinctions and the rewilding of America. University of California Press, Berkeley. ISBN 0-520-23141-4
- (1885): The Lenape Stone or The Indian and the Mammoth. DjVu fulltext PDF fulltext
- (2001): Mammoth: The resurrection of an Ice Age giant. Fourth Estate, London. ISBN 1-84115-518-7
- "The Mammoth Story" by Grant Keddie - an article on the Royal British Columbia Museum website
- Mammoth Site of Hot Springs, South Dakota
- "The Great Mammoth Hoax"
- BBC: Mammoth skeleton found in Siberia
- "Back from the dead": A feature on efforts to clone mammoths back from extinction, Cosmos Magazine, 6 December 2006.
- Humans not responsible for mammoth extinction
- The Waco Mammoth Site
- Wenas Creek Mammoth Site The Wenas Creek Mammoth Project is a Central Washington University (CWU) scientific investigation of mammoth bones found on private land in the Wenas Creek Valley near Selah, Washington
- Western Center for Archaeology and Paleontology Hemet, California
mammoth in Arabic: ماموث
mammoth in Min Nan: Mammoth
mammoth in Bosnian: Mamut
mammoth in Breton: Mammout
mammoth in Bulgarian: Мамут
mammoth in Catalan: Mamut
mammoth in Czech: Mamut
mammoth in Welsh: Mamoth
mammoth in Danish: Mammut
mammoth in German: Mammuts
mammoth in Estonian: Mammut
mammoth in Spanish: Mammuthus
mammoth in Esperanto: Mamuto
mammoth in Basque: Mamut (animalia)
mammoth in French: Mammouth
mammoth in Scottish Gaelic: Mamot
mammoth in Galician: Mamut
mammoth in Classical Chinese: 長毛象
mammoth in Korean: 매머드
mammoth in Croatian: Mamuti
mammoth in Ido: Mamuto
mammoth in Indonesian: Mamut
mammoth in Interlingua (International Auxiliary Language Association): Mammut
mammoth in Icelandic: Loðfíll
mammoth in Italian: Mammuthus primigenius
mammoth in Hebrew: ממותה
mammoth in Kannada: ಮ್ಯಾಮತ್
mammoth in Lithuanian: Mamutas
mammoth in Hungarian: Mamut
mammoth in Malayalam: മാമോത്ത്
mammoth in Dutch: Mammoeten
mammoth in Japanese: マンモス
mammoth in Norwegian: Mammuter
mammoth in Norwegian Nynorsk: Mammut
mammoth in Occitan (post 1500): Mamot
mammoth in Polish: Mamut
mammoth in Portuguese: Mamute
mammoth in Romanian: Mamut
mammoth in Quechua: Mamut
mammoth in Russian: Мамонты
mammoth in Simple English: Mammoth
mammoth in Slovak: Mamut
mammoth in Serbian: Мамут
mammoth in Serbo-Croatian: Mamut
mammoth in Finnish: Mammutit
mammoth in Swedish: Mammutar
mammoth in Thai: ช้างแมมมอธ
mammoth in Vietnamese: Voi Ma mút
mammoth in Turkish: Mamut
mammoth in Ukrainian: Мамут
mammoth in Contenese: 長毛象
mammoth in Chinese: 猛犸象
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